Ministry of Justice, Law, and Order Policy Reviews
Public Secretary's Notes: Below are a collection of policy possibilities within the Ministry of Justice, Law, and Order - as costed per quarter.
Note: Some countries allow virtually unrestricted ownership of any kind of firearm, whereas in others it is strictly controlled. Some people talk of the basic right to defend yourself, others are concerned that gun ownership leads to gun crime.
Cost: 1 million
Present Policy: No Automatics
Options: No Limit - No Machine Guns - No Automatics - License Required - License Required (Minimum Age 21) - Strict Controls - Total Ban
Note: Every government needs to employ a police force to ensure order is kept and laws are obeyed, but it's a matter of debate exactly how much should be spent on police. Some favour a large force with police on every street corner, others prefer a more low-key and tolerant approach.
Present Cost: 1,000 million
Possible Range: 165 million - 1,350 million
Note: Working with the community rather than attempting to control it, community policing encourages the police to better understand the needs of the local community, especially in areas with ethnic minorities. Critics see it as an expensive waste of money which could be spent on more direct methods to prevent crime.
Present Cost: 380 million
Possible Range: 60 million - 380 million
Note: Some argue that providing the minimum number of bare, cold cells is the only provision that needs to be made for those who have broken the law. Others suggest that spending more money allows for prisoners to be rehabilitated as well as punished and reduces the chance of recidivism.
Present Cost: 60 million --- Present Policy: Purposeful Overcrowding
Possible Range: 60 million (Purposeful Overcrowding) - 330 million (Cell Barracking) - 600 million (Decent Provisioning) - 850 million (Modern Prisons) - 1,200 million (World Leading Prisons)
Witness Protection Services
Note: What good is catching a criminal if the witness to the crime disappears forever? Protecting those witnesses is of utmost importance for a working justice system, and the better it is, the more criminals get convicted and the more witnesses will come forward if they see a crime.
Present Cost: 100 million
Possible Range: 25 million - 100 million
Criminal Rehabilitation Funding
Note: Some citizens desire to rehabilitate criminals and to ensure they are capable of finding work and avoiding criminal activity on release. Some citizens see prison as a powerful deterrent where prisoners are punished for what they have done.
Present Cost: 175 million
Possible Range: 0 million - 450 million
Note: Security Services are an essential tool in the fight against organised crime and terrorism. Good, reliable intelligence can be difficult and expensive to obtain, and in many cases the methods employed can be unpopular with civil liberals and human rights advocates.
Present Cost: 625 million
Possible Range: 530 million - 950 million
Note: Should drugs such as Cannabis and Heroin be legalised? Legalisation supporters believe that drugs don't necessarily cause crime, but only the black-market nature of purchasing drugs. Opponents believe we shouldn't give in to criminals and point out the obvious health risks.
Present Policy: Outlawed
Options: Outlawed - Medicinal Cannabis - Cannabis at 25 - Cannabis at 18 - Psychotropics at 18 - Opiates at 18 - No Restrictions after 18
Note: There is ample evidence that excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to health problems and even premature death. However, some people object to the state interfering in an individuals' right to choose what they drink. There is also the complication that a government may make a lot of revenue through taxing alcohol.
Present Policy: Minimum Age 18
Options: Strong Restrictions - Low-Strength Drinks Only - Minimum Age 21 - Minimum Age 18 - Minimum Age 16 - No Restrictions
Drug Enforcement Agency
Note: A specialist team of police experts trained to deal with the very specific demands of enforcing our nation's restrictions on alcohol and narcotics. Trained sniffer dogs, undercover agents, and border-police all work together to stop the flow of illegal drugs into the country.
Present Cost: 42 million
Possible Range: 10 million - 42 million
Note: Establishes an anti-corruption enforcement agency. Eliminating corruption may be mandated, but detecting perpetrators and prosecuting them is the only way to stamp out the abuse of power for personal gain. the more resources this agency has, the more able they will be to bring the powerful to justice.
Possible Range: 3 million - 30 million
Note: Some suggest the holy institution of marriage was not meant to be severed by anything other than death. They say people divorce for the smallest of reasons and this threatens whole families as well as the wellbeing of children. Banning divorce may help rebuild the meaning of marriage.
Options: 2 Year Separation Requirement - Domestic Violence Requirement - Total Ban
Armed Police Policy
Note: Arming police officers can be an effective strategy in deterring crime and maintaining order. Opponents would argue that it encourages criminals to use firearms and create a kind of 'arms-race'. Critics also worry that arming police will cause a psychological distance between them and the citizens they are meant to protect.
Possible Range: 185 million - 600 million
Note: According to many religious texts, homosexuality is a sin. In order to combat this sin, banning or regulating homosexual practices may convince some to return to a truer path and follow the rules as God intended.
Possible Options: Ban Media Representation - Ban Public Displays - Punish with Jailtime
Police Body Cameras
Note: The compulsory wearing of cameras by law enforcement workers is a way to ensure that those workers stick to the law themselves and act in a respectful and honourable way when engaging with members of the public. Without cameras, corruption and bullying complaints against police are not very easily proven.
Possible Range: 28 million - 100 million
Note: The death penalty is the ultimate punishment for serious crimes. Opponents are concerned by the possibility of killing an innocent person, and suggest that only a barbaric state has the death penalty. Supporters point out that it absolutely guarantees no recidivism, and acts as a serious deterrent to crime.
Possible Options: For Serial/Mass Murder Only - Premeditated Murder - Murder and Serial Rape - Most Violent Crime - Serious Felonies - All Felonies
Note: CCTV cameras can be a great help in catching criminals and can also deter crime. The installation costs are extremely high, and there are civil rights concerns from those who don't like to feel the government is constantly watching them.
Possible Range: 250 million - 500 million
Note: To boost patriotism and to induce a sense of national belonging, placing flags on major or even minor streets may help with the national self-esteem. It also looks quite nice.
Possible Range: 7 million - 55 million
Compulsory Religious Attendance
Note: Some religious leaders would content that it is not possible to be saved if one doesn't learn about the proper ways to live a good life. The government could coerce citizens to attend institutions of the state-religion.
Possible Options: Written Warnings for non-attendance - Civil Fines - Jail Terms
Note: Introduced for short periods of time during a state of national emergency, these may be an effective way to combat crime at the cost of personal liberty. Often, however, limiting the ability of peaceful citizens to leave their homes as they wish may be a sign of a nation's degeneration into severe authoritarianism.
Possible Options: Teenage Curfew (50 million) - High Crime Areas (68 million) - All citizens 1am to 3am (85 million) - All citizens 12am to 6am (105 million) - All citizens 10PM to 8am (125 million)
Suspension of Habeas Corpus
Note: Detention without trial allows your police and security services to detain certain suspects when they do not yet have sufficient evidence (or hold only very secret evidence) to convict suspects. This can be justified in the name of preventing terrorism, but human rights advocates worry about civil rights violations.
Possible Options: 72 Hour Maximum - 7 Day Maximum - 30 Day Maximum - 90 Day Maximum - Indefinite
Note: To some, gambling is a sin which leads to poverty and disaster, but others believe that some 'social' gambling is just harmless fun which can also be nicely taxed as an additional form of revenue. It also encourages tourism and creates jobs.
Possible Options: Strict Pre-Staking Limit, Age Limit 21 - Age Limit 21 - No Restrictions
Note: Hunting for animals is a contentious pursuit, especially if their numbers in the wild are dwindling. However, wild animals can be an exploitable natural resource to create a valuable industry. Regulating hunting as a way of managing animal population, protect competing species, and ensuring proper licensing. Or, perhaps this is the opportunity to commit to a total ban.
Possible Options: Unregulated - Licensing Fees - Licensing and Locality Restrictions - Total Ban
Note: A drastic solution to serious street crime and vandalism, gated communities are basically self-policed residential areas. They are popular with the wealthy, but often associated with class divide and inequality, as only the wealthy can afford to live inside them. As a result, some governments are reluctant to permit their construction.
Possible Options: Discouraged - Acquiescent - Encouraged
Note: Traditionally, many religions only support marriage between a man and a woman, but more liberal societies are happy to have legally-significant civil partnerships, or even marriages between same sex couples. It's a matter of debate as to whether these should be carried out in churches and by priests.
Possible Options: Outlawed - Unequal Restrictions - Civil Equality
Gender Discrimination Laws
Note: Make discrimination against women illegal. As well as equal rights for women being written into law, the step can be taken to correct historic inequality with positive action. Affirmative action favors the employment, or appointment, of women for roles across the full spectrum of the labor market and political system.
Possible Options: Paper Equality - Enforcement - Quota Enforcement
Transgender Healthcare Regulations
Note: Some religious groups, and conservative sections of society, argue that there are only two genders and that changing gender should not be allowed. Others argue that gender has always been a fluid concept and nobody should enforce their gender views on others. Ultimately the state has to take a stance on the extent to which gender transition is officially accepted or rejected.
Possible Options: Psychological Evaluation Required, older than 18 - Psychological Evaluation Required, no age limit - No restrictions, Private Funding - No restrictions, Public Funding (6 million)
Media Standards and Enforcement
Note: There are times when an outraged public is counterproductive to the well-being of a democracy. Enabling general media censorship can prevent bad rumors and speculation from spiraling out of control and while it limits civil rights, less violence and fear might be worth the effort. We do not wish to give antisocial extremists the free use of our media to create unrest.
Possible Options: Newsprint Standards - ..and Television Standards - ..and Radio Standards - ..and Internet Standards
National ID Cards
Note: Some say ID Cards act as a powerful deterrent against terrorism and other serious crimes, but liberals would argue that it is an infringement of an individual's civil liberties for the state to demand that citizens identify themselves on the spot.
Possible Options: Voluntary Uptake - Widespread Requirements - Compulsory - Biometric Aspect - Strict Enforcement
Note: In recent years, there has been an outcry from more patriotically minded individuals regarding the dangers that illegal immigration may pose. To reduce the number of illegal immigrants living in the country, we can assemble an independent immigration investigation and enforcement force outside the standard border and civil police to find and deport illegal residents.
Possible Range: 150 million - 900 million
Note: Establish the protection of innovative ideas by granting their creators a period of monopoly over their use. Advocates of intellectual property rights claim that invention is incentivized by allowing the owners of ideas to benefit financially. The aim is to promote creativity and progress. However, in practice the use of these rights tends to favor the resource rich, who can pay for rights registration and enforcement.
Possible Options: Minor - Medium - Significant - Recognise International Copyrights
Note: Liberals would suggest that the internet's greatest characteristic is its freedom from censorship and control, leading to an open and tolerant society. Freedom has its price however, and there is no shortage of material on the internet that can assist those with criminal intent. Opinion on what should and should not be censored on the web is bitterly divided.
Possible Options: Extreme Content (150 million) - Criminal Complaint (185 million) - Moral Standard Enforcement (215 million) - All Traffic Logged and Monitored (250 million)
Jury Trial Policy
Note: The right to be tried by ordinary members of the public rather than a judge is seen as a fundamental human right by many liberals. Conservatives argue that such a process is expensive, time wasting and is no fairer than a judge or a group of magistrates. Its entirely possible to have a system where a jury trial is reserved for more serious offences, with minor trials presided over by a magistrate.
Possible Options: Exceptional Trials (65 million) - Serious Trials (100 million) - By Request (130 million) - All Criminal Trials (160 million) - All Trials (200 million)
Public Defender Corps
Note: Not everyone has the money to pay a lawyer to defend themselves in court. Although a citizen could theoretically defend himself, providing state-employed lawyers should make for a fairer system. On the other hand, this is basically a big subsidy to people who have already been charged with a crime but remember they are innocent until proved guilty.
Possible Range: 6 million - 250 million
Note: Conservatives claim that the legalization of prostitution would mark a severe decline in family values. Others claim that as prostitution is unlikely to disappear, even if illegal, it's better for society and sex-workers that the practice is regulated and monitored rather than criminalized.
Possible Options: Illegal - Strict Licensing - Moderate Licensing
Mandatory RFID Implants
Note: Passports can be forged and fingerprints can be faked. A microchip under the skin makes every individual in this country technically recognizable. Once implemented, law enforcement will be able to track exactly who went where when. Liberals are enraged about the possibility of absolute surveillance.
Possible Options: Criminals (125 million) - State Employees (400 million) - All Adult Citizens (850 million) - All Residents (1,175 million)
Veterans Day Celebrations
Note: Our heroes and protectors need to be recognized. By establishing a National Armed Forces Celebration Committee, this can be done by celebrating their service for our country, making them feel appreciated and showing the public who these brave men and women are that would risk their lives for our safety.
Possible Range: 24 million - 73 million
Needle Exchange Program
Note: Drug addition itself is bad enough already, and dirty or infected needles are an additional danger for drug addicts. To help out, the needle exchange program will help the addicts get clean needles for their needs, while also offering them help in getting clean and living a normal life again. Conservatives may think of this as enabling, but liberals see it as a good way to fight drug abuse in the long run.
Potential Range: 12 million - 73 million
Police Drone Reconnaissance
Note: Unmanned aerial reconnaissance vehicles, similar to remote control planes which can be employed by the police force. The 'eye in the sky' is a useful way to keep track of mobs and rioters, and allows for subtle yet effective surveillance. The police see it as a vital tool for modern crime fighting, but there are concerns that this is a step further towards a big-brother style surveillance society where everyone is tracked.
Possible Range: 300 million - 900 million
Criminal GPS Tagging and Tracking
Note: A high tech alternative to incarceration that allows people to re-integrate with the community upon parole, whilst allowing law enforcement authorities to keep a close eye on them. Liberals have concerns that such a system is a step towards a police state which monitors our every move.
Possible Range: 9 million - 25 million
Felon Voting Rights
Note: In some countries, all prisoners retain the right to take part in elections in order to encourage a feeling of still being part of society and to ensure their welfare is represented. In others, the right to vote is seen as a privilege granted to those who abide by society's rules and rightly removed from those incarcerated.
Possible Options: Illegal - Legal
Private For-Profit Prisons
Note: Rather than directly control and manage a State prison service, this policy allows prisons to be privately owned and managed, and merely paid for by the state. Private prisons could result in lower cost and higher efficiency. These measures will be unpopular with trade unionists. Liberals will have ethical concerns about profiting from incarceration, but still be pleased if spending is high enough to promote rehabilitation.
Possible Range: 50 million - 950 million
Note: A fine is no deterrent to anti-social behaviour at all if it does not scale with income. What may be a colossal and finances-wrecking penalty for some is a mere inconvenience for the wealthy. By making fines scale with income, the law can be better applied with equity to all citizens.
Potential Income: -2 million - 15 million
Race Discrimination Laws
Note: Prevents citizens being discriminated against purely on the basis of race.
Possible Options: Paper Equality - Enforcement - Quota Enforcement
Note: Racial (or ethnic) profiling is the practice of using race as a factor in identifying criminals and potential criminals. Law enforcement officials claim that using racial profiling allows them to quickly narrow down lists of potential suspects, and to best concentrate their efforts but opponents fear that it leads to racial discrimination by the police.
Possible Options: Illegal - Legal
Medically Assisted Suicide
Note: Although clearly punishing people for taking their own life is futile, the state often makes it a crime to assist in someone's early death, even if they are in great pain and are unable to carry out the act without help. Religions often take a dim view of suicide, or those assisting in it, regardless of circumstances.
Possible Options: Illegal - Extreme Circumstances - Multiple Doctors' Agreement - Single Doctor's Agreement - Immediate Family's Agreement - At Will
Internet Privacy Rights
Note: As more of our lives are led online, and tracking everyone's actions and movements becomes easier, some people argue that the right to privacy both from government and from corporations is essential, despite the impact this would have on corporate profits or law enforcement.
Possible Options: Light Restrictions on Tracking - Moderate Restrictions on Tracking - Total Ban on Tracking
Rubber Bullet Riot Control
Note: Rubber or plastic bullets can be fired by police at protestors and rioters as a (usually) non-lethal alternative to actually opening fire with live ammunition. The use of these weapons is generally seen as an extreme measure.
Possible Options: Minimal Use - Moderate Use - Prevalent Use
Secret Martial Courts
Note: To combat modern terrorism and crime, it is sometimes necessary to keep things from the public. For that, secret courts are established and controlled by government officials to assure that the law is followed and not broken. We cannot effectively fight terrorism and serious crime if our secret services methods get exposed in open courts.
Possible Options: Terrorism Only - Leadership of Organised Crime - All Capital Crimes - All Felonies
Political Protective Police
Note: Being a national leader typically entails making a lot of people angry. For those radical enough, this anger can oftentimes turn into violence. By creating a protective police force for our nation's political leadership, we will be able to prevent this kind of risk. We'll need good intelligence services to make the best use of these task forces, however.
Possible Range: 60 million - 310 million
Note: Speed cameras are an automated way to enforce speed restrictions on our roads, without having to invest a fortune in extra traffic police. Supporters claim they reduce road deaths and free up the police to deal with more serious crime, opponents claim they are a cynical way of taxing the motorist and have nothing to do with safety.
Possible Income Options: Accident Hotspots (40 million) - Near Schools (62 million) - Around Residential Areas (85 million) - Widespread Areas (120 million)
Institute a State Religion
Note: A country can select a specific religion as the official religion for the state, even if it still permits atheism and the worship of other religions. At the least this involves some ceremony, but it can also extend to giving actual political power to unelected church representatives, and involving the church in procedures such as swearing in new elected representatives.
Possible Options: Official on Paper - Positive Discrimination - Singular Permission
Note: A non-lethal but still highly effective (and possibly dangerous) weapon which effectively gives criminals an electric shock. Supporters say it is a good compromise between the need to disable violent criminals and the risk of death associated with traditional firearms. Opponents claim that the use of such weapons lowers the barrier-to-use for the police and will encourage more casual use of force against the population.
Possible Options: Extreme Cases - Rarely Used - Often Used - Ubiquitous
Use of Tear Gas
Note: Tear gas is a great way to control angry crowds, but can have health effects and is seen as a tool of authoritarian regimes. Tear gas is generally only used as a last resort.
Possible Options: Minimal Use - Moderate Use - Prevalent Use
Note: Terrorists are tough customers and to prevent some attacks, extraordinary measures sometimes have to be deployed. While it is never 100% clear how much crime and terrorism can be reduced by such a policy, surely it makes sense to not fight such enemies with one hand tied behind the back of our security services? You have to fight fire with fire.
Possible Options: Potential Nuclear Terror Only - All Foreign Terror Threats - Foreign and Domestic Terror Threats - Violent and Organised Criminals - Punishment Option for All Crime
Criminalise Untracable Wealth
Note: A break with the normal assumption of innocence until proven guilty, unexplained wealth orders allow prosecution where a wealthy individual cannot explain where their wealth comes from. Controversial, but an effective policy against career criminals who are clearly profiting from crime, but have covered their tracks well.
Possible Range: 5 million - 15 million
Use of Water Cannons
Note: An effective, non-lethal and generally low-risk method of crowd control for protesters and rioters. Water cannons are generally seen as a last resort, and more popular with authoritarian governments than democracies.
Possible Options: Minimal Use - Moderate Use - Prevalent Use
Note: From a law and order perspective, wire tapping is an essential weapon in the fight against organized crime and terrorism. The problem is that it's difficult to prevent misuse of such a system, and liberals are keen to point out how widespread wire tapping is a very sinister sign of a police state.
Possible Options: By Government Resolution - Judicial Warrant - Police Chief Justification - On Police Request - Widespread Use - Universal Monitoring